Cognitive Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience

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Cognitive Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience

  1. Chapters 1-4
    1. 1 Cognitive Psychology and the Brain
      1. 1.2 History of Cognitive Psychology
        1. 1.2.1 Renaissance and Beyond
        2. 1.2.2 20th Century and the Cognitive Revolution
      2. 1.4 Relations to Neuroscience
        1. 1.4.3 Methods
        2. 1.4.1 Cognitive Neuropsychology
        3. 1.4.2 Neuroanatomy Basics
      3. 1.3 What is Cognitive Psychology?
      4. 1.5 Conclusion
    2. 3 Evolutionary Perspective on Social Cognitions
      1. 3.4 Conclusion
      2. 3.2 Social Cognition
        1. 3.2.3 Development of Social Cognition during childhood
        2. 3.2.1 The human faculty of Social Cognition
        3. 3.2.2 Shared Intentionality
      3. 3.3 Evolutionary perspective on Social Cognition
        1. 3.3.2 Kin Selection
        2. 3.3.3 Reciprocal Altruism
        3. 3.3.1 Group Selection
    3. 2 Problem Solving from an Evolutionary Perspective
      1. 2.4 How do Experts Solve Problems?
      2. 2.5 Creative Cognition
        1. 2.5.1 Divergent Thinking
        2. 2.5.2 Convergent Thinking
      3. 2.2 Restructuring - The Gestalt Approach
        1. 2.2.3 Fixation
          1. Functional fixedness
          2. Mental fixedness
        2. 2.2.1 How is a problem represented in the mind?
        3. 2.2.2 Insight
      4. 2.1 Introduction
        1. 2.1.2 Ill-defined Problems
        2. 2.1.1 Well-defined Problems
      5. 2.3 Problem Solving as a Search Problem
        1. 2.3.2 Analogies
        2. 2.3.3 Restructuring by Using Analogies
        3. 2.3.1 Means-End Analysis
      6. 2.6 Neurophysiological Background
      7. 2.7 The Evolutionary Perspective
      8. 2.8 Summary and Conclusion
    4. 4 Behavioural and Neuroscience Methods
      1. 4.3 Techniques for Assessing Brain Anatomy / Physiological Function
        1. 4.3.1 CAT
        2. 4.3.3 DT-MRI
        3. 4.3.2 MRI
          1. Risks
          2. Figure 17 A full size MRI-Scanner.
          3. History and Development of MRI
          4. Common Uses of the MRI Procedure
        4. 4.3.4 fMRI
        5. 4.3.5 PET
      2. 4.5 Techniques for Modulating Brain Activity
        1. 4.5.1 TMS
        2. 4.5.2 tDCS
      3. 4.4 Electromagnetic Recording Methods
        1. 4.4.4 MEG
        2. 4.4.2 EEG
        3. 4.4.1 Single cell
        4. 4.4.3 ERP
      4. 4.2 Lesion method
      5. 4.7 Modeling Brain-Behaviour
      6. 4.6 Behavioural Methods
        1. 4.6.3 The Eye Tracking Procedure
        2. 4.6.2 Test batteries
        3. 4.6.1 A Concept of a behavioural test
  2. Chapters 9-12
    1. 11 Situation Models and Inferencing
      1. 11.2 Why do we need situation models?
        1. Integration of information across sentences
        2. Domain expertise on comprehension
        3. Explanation of similarities in comprehension performances across modalities
        4. Explanation of translation skills
        5. Multiple source learning
      2. 11.4 Processing Frameworks
        1. 11.4.4 Event-Indexing Model
        2. 11.4.2 An interactive Model of Comprehension
        3. 11.4.5 The Immersed Experiencer Framework
        4. 11.4.3 Early Computational Model
      3. 11.3 Multidimensionality of Situation Models
        1. 11.3.4 Intentionality
        2. 11.3.2 Time
        3. 11.3.1 Space
        4. 17.3.3 Causation
        5. 11.3.5 Protagonists and Objects
      4. 11.5 Levels of Representation in Language and Text Comprehension
      5. 11.7 Important Topics of current research
        1. 11.7.2 Multidimensionality
        2. 11.7.1 Linguistic Cues versus World Knowledge
      6. 11.6 Inferencing
        1. 11.6.5 Integrating Inferences into Situation Models
        2. 11.6.3 Causal Inference
        3. 11.6.2 Instrumental Inference
        4. 11.6.4 Predictive / Forward Inference
        5. 11.6.1 Anaphoric Inference
    2. 9 Comprehension
      1. 9.10 Culture and Language
      2. 9.2 - 9.5
        1. 9.4 Physiological Approach
        2. 9.2 Historical review on Psycholinguistics & Neurolinguistics
        3. 9.5 Behavioristic Approach – Parsing a Sentence
        4. 9.3 Characteristic features
      3. 9.11 What is the connection between language and cognition?
        1. 9.11.2 Categorical Perception
        2. 9.11.1 Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
      4. 9.6 - 9.9
        1. 9.7 Situation Model
        2. 9.9 Language, Culture and Cognition
        3. 9.8 Using Language
        4. 9.6 The Interactionist Approach of Parsing
      5. 9.12 Is thought dependent on, or even caused by language?
        1. 9.12.2 Present research
        2. 9.12.1 Historical theories
    3. 12 Knowledge Representation and Hemispheric Specialisation
      1. 12.3 Computational Knowledge Representation
        1. 12.3.3 Applications of Knowledge Representation
        2. 12.3.1 Knowledge Engineering
        3. 12.3.4 Artificial Intelligence
        4. 12.3.2 Knowledge Representation Formalisms
      2. 12.2 Knowledge Representation in the Brain
        1. 12.2.4 Mental Representation
          1. Propositional Approach
          2. Imagery Approach
        2. 12.2.2 Semantic Networks
          1. Collins and Quillian's Model
          2. Collins and Loftus Model
        3. 12.2.1 Concepts and Categories
          1. Hierarchical Organisation of Categories
          2. Prototype Approach
          3. Definitional Approach
          4. Exemplar Approach
          5. Representation of Categories in the Brain
        4. 12.2.3 Connectionist Approach
          1. Operation of Connectionist Networks
          2. Evaluating Connectionism
          3. Basic Principles of Connectionism
      3. 12.4 Hemispheric Distribution
        1. 12.4.3 Historic Approaches
        2. 12.4.4 Experiments with Split-Brain Patients
        3. 12.4.7 Common Results
        4. 12.4.8 Differences in Processing
        5. 12.4.5 Experiments with Patients with other Brain-Lesions
        6. 12.4.6 Experiments with Neurologically Intact Individuals
        7. 12.4.1 Differences in Anatomy and Chemistry
        8. 12.4.2 The Corpus Callosum
        9. 12.4.9 Interaction of the Hemispheres
        10. 12.4.10 Individual Factors Influencing Lateralisation
        11. 12.4.11 Summary
    4. 10 Neuroscience of Text Comprehension
      1. 10.3 Auditory Language Processing
        1. 10.3.1 Neurological Perspective
        2. 10.3.3 Evidence from Advanced Neuroscience Methods
        3. 10.3.2 Psychological Perspective
          1. Syntax
          2. Phonology
          3. Semantics
      2. 10.5 Other symbolic systems
        1. 10.5.3 Music
        2. 10.5.1 Kana and Kanji
        3. 10.5.2 Sign Language
          1. Neurology of SL
          2. Structure of SL
      3. 10.4 Visual Language Processing
        1. 10.4.4 Evidence from Advanced Neuroscience Methods
        2. 10.4.2 The processing of written language in reading
        3. 10.4.1 Two routes model
        4. 10.4.3 The processing of written language in spelling
      4. 10.2 Lateralization of language
        1. 10.2.2 The right hemisphere
        2. 10.2.3 The left hemisphere
        3. 10.2.3 The left hemisphere
        4. 10.2.1 Functional asymmetry
      5. 10.6 Outlook
  3. Chapters 5-8
    1. 8 Imagery
      1. 8.2 The Imagery Debate
        1. 8.2.1 Theory of propositional representation
          1. Representation
          2. Complex objects and schemes
          3. Propositional networks
          4. Experimental support
        2. 8.2.3 Discussion
        3. 8.2.2 Theory of spatial representation
          1. Experimental support
          2. Encoding
      2. 8.4 Imagery and memory
        1. 8.4.3 The dual-code theory
        2. 8.4.1 The common-code theory
        3. 8.4.2 The abstract-propositional theory
      3. 8.3 Neuropsychological approach
        1. 8.3.4 Interpretation of the neuropsychological results
        2. 8.3.2 Support for shared physiological mechanisms of imagery and perception
        3. 8.3.1 Investigating the brain - a way to resolve the imagery debate?
        4. 8.3.3 Double dissociation between imagery and perception
    2. 6 Memory
      1. 6.4 Some neurobiological facts about memory
        1. 6.4.1 Information storage
        2. 6.4.3 Hippocampus
        3. 6.4.2 Amygdala
        4. 6.4.4 Amnesia
      2. 6.2 Types of Memory
        1. 6.2.3 Working Memory
        2. 6.2.1 Sensory Memory
        3. 6.2.4 Long Term Memory
          1. Declarative Memory
          2. Implicit Memory
        4. 6.2.2 Short Term Memory
      3. 6.3 Forgetting and False Memory
        1. 6.3.2 Repressed and Recovered Memories
        2. 6.3.1 Biases in memory
    3. 5 Motivation and Emotion
      1. 5.5 Summary
      2. 5.3 Emotions
        1. 5.3.3 The Neural Correlate of Emotion
        2. 5.3.1 Basics
        3. 5.3.4 Functional Theories
        4. 5.3.2 Awareness and Emotion
        5. 5.3.5 Reading Minds
        6. 5.3.6 Mood and Memory
      3. 5.2 Motivation
        1. 5.2.1 About Drives and Motives
        2. 5.2.2 The Neurological Regulation of Drives
      4. 5.4 Disorders
        1. 5.4.2 Autism
        2. 5.4.3 Psychopathy and Sociopathy
        3. 5.4.1 Depression
    4. 7 Memory and Language
      1. 7.3 Acquisition of language
      2. 7.4 Disorders and Malfunctions
        1. 7.4.2 Autism
        2. 7.4.1 Alzheimer's Desease
      3. 7.2 Basics
        1. 7.2.2 Language
        2. 7.2.1 Memory
  4. Chapters 13-14
    1. 14 Present and Future of Research
      1. 14.2 Today's approaches
        1. 14.2.1 The momentary usage of brain imaging
        2. 14.2.2 Interdisciplinary Approaches
          1. Cognitive Neuropsychology
          2. Experimental Cognitive Psychology
          3. Cognitive Science
          4. Cognitive Neuroscience
          5. Neural Networks
          6. Unifying Theories
      2. 14.4 Conclusion
      3. 14.3 Future Research
    2. 13 Reasoning and Decision Making
      1. 13.3 Decision making
        1. 13.3.1 Choosing among alternatives
          1. The utility approach
          2. Misleading effects
          3. Framing effect
          4. Subjective models
          5. Focusing illusion
          6. Justification in decision making
        2. 13.3.2 Executive functions
          1. 3. Responses containing novel sequences of actions
          2. 1. Planning or decision making
          3. Executive functions in practise
          4. 2. Error correction and trouble shooting
          5. 5. Control of action or the overcoming of strong habitual responses
          6. 4. Technical difficulties or dangerous circumstances
      2. 13.4 Summary
      3. 13.2 Reasoning
        1. 13.2.2 Inductive reasoning
          1. Forms of inductive reasoning
          2. Reliability of conclusions
          3. The confirmation bias
          4. The availability heuristic
        2. 13.2.2 Inductive reasoning
          1. Forms of inductive reasoning
          2. Reliability of conclusions
          3. The representativeness heuristic
          4. The confirmation bias
          5. Processes and constraints
          6. The availability heuristic
          7. Why inductive reasoning at all?
        3. 13.2.1 Deductive reasoning
          1. The descriptive approach
          2. Mental models of deductive reasoning
          3. Forms of conditional syllogisms
          4. The Wason Selection Task
          5. Effects of culture on deductive reasoning
          6. Conditional syllogisms
          7. Categorical syllogisms
          8. The normative approach
          9. Why is the performance better in the case of real–world items?
  5. About this book
by Spatial Bookworm
About this document
"Cognitive Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience" textbook is converted to SpatialNote format from the same title available at Wikibooks.org under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported license. As a derivative, this documents is licensed under the same license. The original linear version of the book is available in wiki format (https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Cognitive_Psychology_and_Cognitive_Neuroscience), and in PDF format (https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d8/Cognitive_Psychology_and_Cognitive_Neuroscience.pdf).
Published on 16 Feb 2016
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